Johnny Storm : Flame On!


3692831-human-torch-lalala-peqAfter my last post I think it’s time to heat things up. Enter Johnny Storm AKA The Human Torch[1]Human Torch bio courtesy of Marvel. Brash and impetuous it was no shock that after the exposure to cosmic radiation, that gave birth to the Fantastic Four, Johnny developed a power in keeping with his personality. That boy got fiery.

Now to be frank, I’m not entirely sure I see a way to explain the mass amount of flames and excessive temperatures he endures without burning his skin off his bones. Don’t get me wrong, there are animals out there that can tolerate some pretty crazy temperatures; the Sahara Desert Ant being the first one to spring to mind. These little babies can survive heats of up to about 70 degrees Cesius, which is quite frankly impressive. My Scottish skin can’t cope with 20+ degrees Celsius without sun cream. A recent breakthrough has identified how those little guys do it; it’s hair! To cut a lengthy but interesting explanation short, the Saharan has a body covered in uniquely shaped silver hairs, which reflect sunlight and shed heat.[2]Further reading on Saharan Desert Ants Pretty cool huh? Sadly, Storm wasn’t covered in silver hair last I checked and even if he was I still don’t think it would stop him turning to ash.

Given that we’re in the land of comic books, I can only assume that there has been some alteration to his physiology courtesy of the radiation that’s allowed him to become essentially fireproof. I’m going to run with that theory because I honestly don’t have a better one.

FireTWith that cleared up, let’s talk about fire. What is fire? From a chemical point of view, fire is simply rapid oxidation. Oxidation, as you may have guessed from the name, is the addition of oxygen to another element or molecule to form a compound. If this reaction happens rapidly then boom; flame on! The fast reaction means the release of heat energy is large, thus creating fire. Oxidation is a pretty common occurrence in life, it’s also the cause of rust for example but in the case of rust it happens over such a long period of time that nothing bursts into flames. Sadly.

In the case of the Human Torch he starts the fire without any initial source of heat. How he achieves this is where it gets interesting. Storm’s sister Sue, or if you prefer The Invisible Woman, also developed powers as a result of the cosmic radiation. Her nervous system generates a field that allows her to manipulate the electrostatic fields around her; I’ll talk about the details behind this in another post. I believe that similarly, Johnny’s nervous system generates a field that causes combustion. It performs the first part of the chain reaction, breaking the bonds of a combustible material and combining them with oxygen. After that there’s already enough heat generating to maintain combustion.

This doesn’t really explain why the Human Torch is always on fire, but if I had to hazard a guess I’d assume he’s using his own sweat to fuel the fire. Pretty gross, but effective nonetheless. Sweat is basically water, take that and break it into hydrogen and oxygen, and voilà we have hydrogen to burn. This once again forms water and the cycle continues on. The flaw here is that the law of conservation of energy[3]Further reading on the conservation of energy would eventually force this loop to collapse somewhere down the line. There’s only so much one person can sweat!

Theoretically with all the mutagenic effects from the cosmic radiation there is also the possibility that the Human Torch actually exudes his own unique fuel. This bit is going to get a bit hazy because I don’t really have a fully constructed theory behind it but this fuel would have to be in some way related to phosphorous; given that phosphorous ignites on contact with air. If we assume that the oxide that forms upon burning breaks down again at a given temperature then we can effectively set up a combustion loop. As far as ‘recharging’ his fuel goes if his body modified itself to create it then presumably his body could also have modified itself to reabsorb the unoxidated fuel. This would mean he would always be fully charged and ready to ‘flame on’ for as long as the oxygen held out.

Sadly for us mere mortals the old idiom still stands; ‘If you play with fire, you’re gonna get burned’.


References   [ + ]

1. Human Torch bio courtesy of Marvel
2. Further reading on Saharan Desert Ants
3. Further reading on the conservation of energy

Bobby Drake : As Cold as Ice


Iceman2Bobby Drake, code-named Iceman[1]Iceman bio courtesy of Marvel is our subject matter today. One of the original X-Men, he first appeared in The Uncanny X-Men #1[2]Credits and info on The Uncanny X-Men #1 where his mutant power was revealed to be the ability to lower the temperature of his body and immediate surroundings to less than 0 degrees Celsius. This power meant his body tended to acquire a protective coating of frozen water.

As I’m sure fans are already aware, be it from the comics, cartoon series or films, Bobby can’t actually produce ice. In actual fact what he does is condense the water vapour always present in the air and manipulate it. It’s an interesting idea for a mutated human ability. Unfortunately I do have to question where the heat he subtracts goes. Heat that you subtract from any given situation must be compensated for by an amount delivered somewhere else. The Second Law of Thermodynamics[3]Explanation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics would suggest that the heat added is most likely greater than the heat subtracted. For a more everyday explanation, take your refrigerator. Your fridge removes all the heat inside it and makes it nice and chilly so you can store all your goodies. The heat doesn’t disappear though, it gets fired out the back of your fridge. So my question remains; where does the heat go when Iceman freezes the air? Sadly it’s not something I can really fathom an answer to and I don’t see Marvel coughing one up for me anytime soon. It obviously has to go somewhere but for just now it’s a mystery!

As Iceman gained more control over his powers, he not only had the ability to form a protective shell but he could also project ‘freeze rays’ meaning he could ice up other people and objects. The coolest manifestation of this were the ice slides he frequently used to get around while fighting. In principle Ice Bridgehe’s basically making a big ice mountain underneath himself to gain height and then generating some nifty ramps to get him where he needs to be. Assuming that you could actually control the temperature the way it’s stated he can and that it’s humid enough to provide an appropriate amount of moisture in the air for all that ice creation then this in itself doesn’t violate any physics principles.

The problem lies in the fact that they always made his ice slides super stable. Which just isn’t practical. The center of mass, or center of gravity if you prefer, of an object is the point at which it acts as if all its mass were concentrated in that one spot. Ever tried balancing things on your fingers? If you have you’ll have found that you could only get things to balance at a specific sweet spot; the center of gravity. Where this sweet spot is entirely depends on the distribution of matter in the object. You can test this out for yourself, just get some random objects and try balancing away.

Bringing it back to the ice slides; the more Iceman extends them the further they move from their center of gravity, that being the ice mountain he set up for himself back at the start. With Iceman gliding across the top of the slide, the torque created would outweigh the strength of the slide itself and as a result that baby should crack. Avoiding this would be reasonably easy if he would just reinforce the underside of his slides with pillars, but he doesn’t.

TheX-Men #47 comics don’t ignore the fact that his feats are a physical implausibility though, they actually have Iceman himself address it which I quite like. The comic panel shown to the left is taken from The Uncanny X-Men #47[4]Credits and info on The Uncanny X-Men #47. It’s a fun little dig at the fact that yes, what he’s doing is physically impossible but Marvel know that.

It IS a comic book after all. Where would the fun be if it was all solely based on reality?


References   [ + ]

1. Iceman bio courtesy of Marvel
2. Credits and info on The Uncanny X-Men #1
3. Explanation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
4. Credits and info on The Uncanny X-Men #47

Dr. Doom : The Madman in the Iron Mask


Dr.Doom 2Any of you guys been to see the Fantastic Four[1]Fantastic Four bio courtesy of Marvel yet? It’s the only Marvel film so far that I haven’t seen at some point during release week. I’ve been pretty busy, I was sceptical from the original trailers and after having heard more about it following release I’ve been thoroughly put off using my time to see it at the cinema. It’s a shame really, the Fantastic Four comics were great and they’ve yet to be done justice in a film adaptation.

At some point I fully intend to cover the Fantastic Four and their exposure to cosmic rays but for the moment I’m on a little bit of a villain kick. I want to talk about Reed Richards'[2]Mr. Fantastic bio courtesy of Marvel personal nemesis and rival superscientist, Victor von Doom.[3]Dr. Doom bio courtesy of Marvel Doom was born in Latveria to a gypsy healer and a gypsy witch woman but given they both died when he was a child, he was actually raised by a friend of his father. Despite the fact he was educated by gypsies and never attended school, Victor became a scientific genius. Unfortunately, he also developed a taste for the black arts.

Fast forward in time and somehow news of his scientific genius has spread to America where he’s offered a scholarship to study at State University. Coincidentally, the same university Richards will be in attendance at. Thus Doom and Richards scientific rivalry began. The archnemesis part comes along when Doom, driven by some need to contact his dead mother, builds an interdimensional communication device to bridge the gap between the living and the dead. His design is sadly flawed and although Richards attempts to inform von Doom of his mistakes, the latter has no interest in listening resulting in the explosion of the machine and the initial scarring of his face. Unfortunately for Doom, State University frowns on machines used to communicate with the dead and he ends up expelled, as well as scarred. As far as Doom is concerned it’s all Richards fault; blaming him for sabotage and the instigation of his dismissal causing the two to become bitter enemies. [4]Fantastic Four #5, July 1962

Following this von Doom travelled to Tibet, where he came into possession of his famous body armour and mask. While Richards completed his Ph.D., von Doom chose to partake in demonic studies and achieved his goal of revenge in Latveria by overthrowing the countries tyrannical ruler and installing himself as absolute dictator. Ultimately, this gave him the diplomatic immunity he needed to become a plague on the Fantastic Four without consequences.

In the forty plus years that von Doom has been relentlessly seeking his revenge on Richards, his costume has remained unchanged. Even in the world of comic books that is a very long time to have no revamp. His outer garments consist of a green jerkin with a black belt, a matching green hood and a green cloak. His signature iron mask is a grim parody of a human face with the mouthpiece constructed into a permanent menacing grin. The armour in his outfit is the important part in all of this though. This armour is what keeps him alive in even the most nail biting of circumstances.

Body armour has been in existence since the beginning of time in some form or another. Given the leaps in the technology behind weaponry, armour has had to try and keep up throughout the years and with the introduction of more advanced guns the introduction of bulletproof vests was inevitable. A modern day bulletproof vest doesn’t consist of metal but instead high-tech fibers woven together to create what is known as soft body armour. Presumably this is what Doom wears underneath his iron-plated armour.

Now I know what you’re thinking. How can something soft stop a bullet? Well, this armour works on the principle of spreading energy at the point of impact of a bullet over a wide area. Effectively, soft body armour[5]Full explanation of how soft body armour works works like a net.

Flexible Kevlar sheet, illustrating the interlocking structure.

Flexible Kevlar sheet, illustrating the interlocking structure.

Kevlar, a lightweight fibre five times stronger than a strand of steel, is woven together to form an extremely dense interlocking pattern that it’s almost impossible for a regular bullet to penetrate. The bullet hits and much like a ball hitting the back of the goal, the energy is dispersed from the point of impact. It’s like a ripple; your stone hits the water at the epicentre and the energy of the impact is dispersed outwards in little waves. While this is the case, the momentum from a speeding bullet is generally more than powerful enough to break bones and a single layer of netting isn’t going to be enough to stop that. To this end, most bulletproof vests are made of multiple layers of Kevlar and plastic film and have pockets able to hold ceramic or metal plates. Sadly, as I said before it’s only almost impossible to penetrate. Tungsten core bullets are going to rip right through everything von Doom has. That is assuming that the guess of using soft body armour is correct.

More than once in the comics run, von Doom has been depicted performing amazing feats; he’s lifted enormous amounts of weight and survived the unsurvivable. So what if it’s not simply body armour? What if von Doom is in actual fact sporting an advanced human exoskeleton suit?

NK_Exoskeleton_BA human exoskeleton suit is a robotic device that can be strapped on or attached directly to the human body. This kind of machinery is quite common in the Marvel universe, with groups such as AIM and HYDRA equipping their mercenaries with high-tech exoskeleton suits to add muscle power.

January 2001 saw the U.S. Defence Advance Research Projects Agency (DARPA) award contracts to laboratories and experimental groups to take the first crack at developing exoskeleton suits for military use. The early work sponsored by DARPA involved pneumatic muscles or deformable magnets to power artificial limbs or suits that soldiers could wear[6]Pneumatic artificial muscles. As the research developed exoskeletons were created that were capable of propelling its user at speeds greater than 15 miles per hour, could lift 250 pounds as though it was nothing and even suits that gave disabled people the ability to walk again. Today, Japan have jumped to the forefront of human exoskeleton suit development with working suits in use on factory floors and in medical facilities[7]Article outlining recent human exoskeleton developments.

It’s not difficult to imagine a young von Doom pitching his pioneering exoskeleton research to the governments and big corporations of the Marvel universe and walking away with the state of the art technology that would explain his uncanny ability to withstand things no ordinary human ever could.

References   [ + ]

1. Fantastic Four bio courtesy of Marvel
2. Mr. Fantastic bio courtesy of Marvel
3. Dr. Doom bio courtesy of Marvel
4. Fantastic Four #5, July 1962
5. Full explanation of how soft body armour works
6. Pneumatic artificial muscles
7. Article outlining recent human exoskeleton developments

Poison Ivy : Toxic Love


Poison IvyThe last few posts have focused on the heroes so let’s go for something a little different today and take a look at one of my favourite supervillainesses; Miss Pamela Lillian Isley AKA Poison Ivy[1]Poison Ivy bio.

Intelligent and dangerous, this lady is one potent femme fatale. Ivy is absolutely gorgeous and her body is to die for. Literally. The source of Ivy’s power is the fact her body manufactures killer toxins; it keeps her skin full of chlorophyll, her lips plump with venom and she secretes so many pheromones you just have to love her. As if that’s not enough when she’s not busy giving men the kiss of death she’s cooking up killer plants to do the job for her.

Ivy made her first appearance in the aptly named “Beware of Poison Ivy!”[2]Batman #181, June 1966. Our lady causes havoc at the museum by making everyone blind using her lipstick to detonate newsmen’s flash bulbs before capturing Batman’s heart using chloroform-based lipstick. The caped crusader is so hot for her he’s incapable of putting a “beautiful doll behind bars.” This doll hasn’t always been so beautiful though. Once upon a time she went by the name Pamela Lillian Isley; a mild-mannered botanist with huge nerd glasses, brown rats nest hair and frumpy clothing. Unfortunately, Pamela’s insane superior Dr.Jason Woodrue altered her body chemistry to be more plantlike as part of their peculiar hybrid project. Or if you prefer the film/TV version, there was a terrible lab accident involving toxic plant matter.

Regardless of the way it came about, Pamela was no more. In her place was the towering goddess we know as Poison Ivy. She emerged a plant-crazed nature lover who was capable of creating killer poisons, man-eating Venus flytraps and enzymes that turn humans into trees. While her body emits an abundance of plant-based perfumes and toxins that maim and kill other people, Ivy herself is immune. Which is a nice perk really.


Urushiol. R = C15H31, C15H29, C15H27 and C15H25

Now given her name, one would naturally assume that Ivy shares genetics with the plant commonly known as poison ivy. So let’s have a little look at that possibility. Poison ivy, or toxicodendron radicans[3]Further information on poison ivy if you want to get fancy about it, is a poisonous plant. Go figure. I’m sure everyone has had a run in with the stuff at some point or another. It causes an itchy and sometimes painful rash to erupt over the area of skin you’ve been unfortunate enough to touch it with. The cause of this delightful skin irritation is a compound found within the sap of the plant known as urushiol. Interestingly enough not everyone reacts to urushiol, around 15-30% of people take no notice of the stuff while in others it can cause anaphylaxis. If you do react to it however you’re in for an itchy and uncomfortable time known as urushiol-induced contact dermatitis, an incredibly fancy medical name for what is basically just a rash. All it takes is a salt grain sized amount to come into contact with your skin. To make matters worse, it will stick to virtually anything and remains potent for years, even after the plant itself has died. For those of you who won’t click the hyperlink, urushiol is a mixture of several closely related organic compounds. Each of which consists of a catechol (that’s an organic compound with a molecular formula of C6H4(OH)2) substituted with an alkyl (an alkane missing a hydrogen) chain that has 15-17 carbon atoms. Now I don’t know about you but I’ve never heard of our villainess causing a nasty rash so I think it’s suffice to say her body does not exude this particular compound. So what could she exude to cause death? Moulds and fungi have the capability of growing on human skin, causing, for example, athlete’s foot, so perhaps in Poison Ivy’s case her lips are coated with a plant substance. Not a particularly attractive thought unfortunately but a plausible one. Potentially, this substance could produce not only your standard chlorophyll and chloroplasts but also human toxins if the DNA within the cells mutated. In the case of a fungus, there wouldn’t even need to be a mutation. There are common mushroom toxins that would be capable of killing a human being[4]Mushroom poisoning and if Ivy was coated in something along those lines it would make death by a smooch a definite reality. But why stop at the lips? Who knows what sort of deadly toxic wasteland Ivy is hiding under her outfit.

That covers the killing part, but what about the attraction of victims in the first place? Obviously, she’s a pretty aesthetically alluring woman but that’s not necessarily enough to keep someone falling all over you. I suspect it would be more likely that she’s making use of her natural perfume; pheromones. That nifty little chemical substance that animals secrete to let the opposite sex of their species know it’s time to get it on. Mammal pheromone studies are still ongoing but they’re a fairly interesting area. A lot of work has been done on the vomeronasal organ[5]Further reading on the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a pheromone-sensing structure in the nasal cavities of animals. Given that the VNO is in the nasal cavity you would assume it’s wired into your sense of smell but that’s not the case. The VNO actually plays a far more important role, it doesn’t just identify perfumes and odours it also controls gender recognition[6]Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) findings on pheromones and gender recognition in mice.

That being the case it’s likely that Ivy secretes pheromones that make her utterly irresistible to men. Not only could she make herself irresistible to them, she could also probably make use of it to affect them in many other ways. Papers report that the VNO system controls genetically preprogrammed territorial, social ranking and maternal behaviours[7]Catherine Dulac report on pheromones and genetic preprogrammed behaviour. This effectively means if she chose to, she could potentially cause utter chaos and rule Gotham.

While Ivy, as a scientist, has a whole host of other tricks up her sleeve I’ll cover her creations another time. For now I think it’s fair to say that her natural charisma could definitely knock you dead.

References   [ + ]

1. Poison Ivy bio
2. Batman #181, June 1966
3. Further information on poison ivy
4. Mushroom poisoning
5. Further reading on the vomeronasal organ
6. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) findings on pheromones and gender recognition in mice
7. Catherine Dulac report on pheromones and genetic preprogrammed behaviour

Ant-Man : Is Miniaturisation Possible?


Ant-ManUnless you’re all living in some kind of hole I’m sure you know the newest addition to the Marvel movie universe has been released. If you haven’t been to see Ant-Man[1]Ant-Man through the ages yet then you should get off your computer and go. It’s an incredibly enjoyable film filled with action, humour and lots of science for me to pick apart!

For this installment of superhero science, I’ll kick off with a little Ant-Man history for anyone who hasn’t read the comics/seen the film. During the 60’s Dr. Hank Pym discovered and isolated a rare group of subatomic, extra dimensional particles; which, naturally, he named after himself. These “Pym Particles” could increase or decrease the size and mass of objects or living beings by shunting or adding it from a subatomic dimension. Combine this with a snazzy suit and helmet and voilà, a hero is born.

Unfortunately, there are huge fundamental issues with virtually everything about Dr. Hank Pym and his alter-ego; Ant-Man. Obviously these Pym Particles are rather far removed from reality and are Marvels attempt to explain their unsound science; which in the context of comic book and film is amazing. Life would be boring without the artistic license to create wonder through self evolved and explained science. The fact that writers actually take the time to create elaborate back stories and incorporate scientific loopholes makes me incredibly happy, it shows there is an understanding of the actual science. Sadly here in the real world, as far as we know, miniaturisation is impossible. Matter is made of atoms, atoms are not open to continuous adjustment in size. Their size is a fundamental length scale of nature, those babies ain’t budging. The reason for this is actually fairly interesting. Have you all seen those insanely inaccurate pictures of atoms and their orbitals? If you haven’t, fear not, I have provided one to help illustrate my explanation.

Inaccurate; but adequate for my point.

Inaccurate; but adequate for my point.

Every atom has a nucleus, and as you can see in that nucleus we have positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons. In addition, the atom has an equal number of negatively charged electrons. We’re all taught from a young age that opposites attract, so why don’t the electrons rush to meet the protons and cause the atom to collapse in on itself? The answer lies in the fact the electrons don’t stand still, they orbit the nucleus. There is still some attraction but the distance and speed of the electrons balance out the pull of the protons. Atoms are all roughly the same size, to within a factor of three, due to this delicate balancing act; that size being roughly a third of a nanometre. This is something we just cannot alter, as far as we currently know.

Since we can’t make the atoms themselves smaller, how about removing a large portion of them or compressing them? In terms of removing atoms, even if we could assume that the removal would be uniform, the impact on biological functions would be astronomical. Consider your brain. The fact that humans use 10% of their brain capacity is a complete myth. It doesn’t even make sense from an evolutionary standpoint because it promotes a waste of resources. If a human brain could function on smaller neurons, we would have evolved to do so. A neuron has a width of roughly one thousandth of a centimetre, be it ant or human. We are smarter than ants because on average we possess four hundred thousands times more neurons, not because our neurons are bigger. Remove say, 85% of your atoms and sure, you can make your cells 85% smaller. They will cease to function as intended though. As for compressing them.. messy. Very messy. Solid objects have atoms that are tightly packed together.[2]Simple comparison of states For sake of illustration think of marbles in a tube, yes there is a little space between the marbles but not enough for more marbles. Squeezing the tube does little to help compress them either, they’re solid it’s not budging. So what do you think shrinking the container with force will do? That’s right, deform and/or crush the marbles. Apply that to humans and there’s going to be a hell of a lot of cleaning to do.

Organic miniaturisation just isn’t possible unless something significant happens to alter the universe we live in. Which, personally, I’m not ruling out.


References   [ + ]

The World’s Greatest Detective


BatmanWith the last instalment of Rocksteady‘s trilogy on the shelves and a new film on the way let’s get topical and stroll over to DC for a spell.

I’m going to digress here somewhat but have many of you had the chance to take Arkham Knight for a spin? I picked up my copy at the GAME midnight launch but my partner actually hijacked it immediately so while I haven’t played much I have watched a fair bit of play through and it’s gorgeous. I won’t launch into a full on review, that’s not really the purpose of this blog, but it was definitely created with the ultimate Batman fantasy in mind. You can glide, brood, fight, dive and drive your way through a gritty, dark Gotham city. The addition of the pimped out Batmobile and the DLC content that make Harley and the Red Hood available is hit and miss; it’s all a matter of personal preference. If you’re a fan of the previous two instalments I would recommend getting your hands on a copy of the studio’s wonderful farewell to Gotham.

Now then, back to the topic at hand, personally the only thing I’m overly fond of from Gotham is Dr. Harleen Frances Quinzel, M.D.[1]Harley Quinn Bio courtesy of DC Frankly though, she’s a bag of crazy that even I don’t want to wade through; psychoanalysis is not enjoyable. So while I may drop in on her and her lady Miss Ivy later to discuss the antitoxin business, today is all about the Dark Knight himself. Batman[2]Batman Bio courtesy of DC is a superhero with a distinct lack of superpowers. There was no accident with a radioactive animal, no cosmic rays or science experiments gone wrong, he keeps the streets clean through nothing more than indomitable willpower and Kevlar fuelled physical prowess. That’s not to say that there’s nothing to talk about concerning the Bat and science. In fact, the man himself said ‘I’ve got to know science thoroughly to become a scientific detective.'[3]Finger, Bill(w) Kane, Bob(p) Schwartz, Lew Sayre(p) Kaye, Stan(i) “How to Be the Batman” Detective Comics Vol 1 #190 [Dec, 1952] Needless to say Mr. Wayne certainly succeeded.

As far as Batman and science is concerned it’s all a technological love affair. He makes up for his distinct lack of superpowers with his wallet, enabling him to equip himself with the finest of gadgets. I’m actually going to roll back time to the good ol’ 1950’s for this and take a look at a few of the bits and pieces in the comics because they entertain me.

For this week we have the portable jet pack. Tired of running around after all those nefarious criminals in Gotham, Batman clearly decided it was about time he had the means to fly between buildings. So was it real life science or just entertaining malarkey? As far as I’m aware this addition was somewhere around the mid 1950’s, a time period in which there were actually a lot of articles kicking around the scientific magazines of the time discussing scientists attempts to develop jet packs. Some of you may already know the name Wendell F. Moore, a scientist of the time who developed a working rocket belt. ‘How did it work?’ I hear you say. Why, through the magic of chemistry of course! I’m going to start throwing out chemical names and sciencey words now so bear with me. The jetpack would have used pressure from liquid nitrogen to force hydrogen peroxide into a catalyst chamber. Here it would have reacted with silver screens coated with samarium nitrate. Mixing all this together would cause a jet of incredibly hot, high-pressured steam to come shooting out the bottom providing thrust.[4]In-depth look into Jet Packs Chemically it all sounds complicated but it’s Balloonactually similar in principle to those super fun rocket balloons; if you blow up a rocket balloon and hold the neck closed the pressure inside the balloon is higher than the pressure outside it, it just doesn’t have anywhere to go because the force is equally spread out (unless you blow it up too enthusiastically, then it’s going to explode in your face). By releasing the neck of the balloon you’re creating an imbalanced force so the air will shoot out the back to try and even things out; thus creating thrust.[5]A fun, simple experiment to demonstrate thrust In a rocket it’s all those fancy chemicals producing the gas and subsequent pressure instead of the spluttering wheezing mess that is a person after blowing up a balloon.

Basically, some poor unsuspecting sod ended up with a high powered rocket strapped to his/her back. Should that poor individual have found themselves with a case of the fidgets then they would have sustained quite the nasty burn from the steam. I like to hope they had incredibly durable legs as well seeing as their pins were the only landing gear available. Factor in the noise levels and the fact it could only hold enough fuel for somewhere in the region of twenty seconds of flight and it’s all very impractical. The pack was scrapped when Moore died but the dream didn’t die there.

Interesting story time. Jump with me to 1992 when three men decided it was time for a rocket revival. Brad Barker, Joe Wright and Larry Stanley founded the American Rocket Belt Corporation to develop their new version of the rocket pack and by ’94 they had a working prototype; the RB 2000 Rocket Belt. They re-jigged Moore’s design using light alloys and composite materials and boosted the fuel capacity resulting in an astounding maximum flight duration of… drum roll please… 30 seconds. In the rocket pack world the RB 2000 was a revelation. Sadly, things went sour. Wright developed an escalating meth addiction, Barker was accused of stealing money and Stanley had had enough. To cut a long story short, Barker beat Stanley pretty viciously and stole their prototype. At some point later down the line, what should debut on TV but the RB 2000. Naturally, Stanley was pissed and convinced Wright to file a joint lawsuit against Barker. This is where things got interesting. Wright was brutally murdered in his own home, Stanley won the lawsuit but Barker fled again. Not willing to give up what he was due Stanley had four men kidnap Barker; he was held captive for eight days in a small box before he managed to escape. Stanley served an eight year sentence and to this day the RB 2000 has never been recovered, which is a shame because it had potential.[6]Full article on “The Jetpack Murder”

The take away from all the rambling is that our Caped Crusader gets a gold star for his feasible use of science and engineering. Go’n yourself DC.

References   [ + ]